Upper & Lower GI Tract

Upper GI Tract

Barrett's Esophagus -- The cells lining the esophagus differ from those lining the stomach or intestines, mainly because they have different functions.

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What Is Esophagitis? -- When stomach acid and digestive enzymes repeatedly reflux into the esophagus, the tissues become inflamed and ulcerated.

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How Do Gallstones Form? -- Bile is composed of a variety of chemicals, including cholesterol, salts, and certain pigments. The gallbladder absorbs water.

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Everyone comments sometimes on the digestive problem of gas. When people complain of gas, they usually mean one or more of the following: Frequent belching of air from the stomach Bloating of the abdomen after eating

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What is Gastritis -- Gastritis means inflamation of the stomach. It means that white blood cells move into the wall of the stomach as a response to some type of injury. Gastritis does not mean that there is an ulcer or cancer.

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This condition occurs when the rate of the electrical wave slows and the stomach contracts less frequently. Now the food just lays in the stomach relying on acid and digestive enzymes to break down.

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What is GERD? -- The esophagus carries food and liquid into the stomach. At the lower end of the esophagus where it enters the stomach, there is a strong muscular ring called the lower esophageal sphincter (LES).

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Why Does Heartburn Occur? To understand heartburn, let's look at the body's anatomy. The esophagus carries food and liquid to the stomach. A sphincter (specialized muscle) is located at the end of the esophagus.

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This unusual name identifies a specific bacteria that can cause infection of the stomach. This infection can contribute to the development of diseases, such as dyspepsia (heartburn, bloating and nausea) and gastritis (inflammation of the stomach)

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The hiatus hernia is one of the most misunderstood and maligned conditions in medicine. People blame this hernia for much more than it ever does. Patients with a hiatus hernia need to understand what it is and what might occur with it.

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Lactose intolerance develops when the body has difficulty digesting whole and skim milk and other dairy products. Lactose is a milk sugar and like most sugars, it is broken down by enzymes in the intestinal tract.

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What Causes Peptic Ulcers? -- An ulcer is an open sore in the lining of the stomach or intestine, much like mouth or skin ulcers. Peptic ulcers are eventually caused by acid and pepsin, a digestive stomach enzyme.

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Hematemesis, the vomiting of blood, occurs after bleeding into the UGI tract--the esophagus, stomach, or upper small bowel proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Hematemesis may be bright red or darker as a result of conversion of hemoglobin by gastric acid.

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Most people have experienced a tear or fissure at the corner of the mouth that can occur in cold weather or when yawning. Similarly, an anal fissure is a small tear.

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What is a Colon Polyp? -- A polyp is a growth that occurs in the colon and other organs. These growths, or fleshy tumors, are shaped like a mushroom.

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The stomach churns and mixes food so it can be digested. The near-liquid food then enters the small intestine which extracts calories, minerals and vitamins.

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What Causes Crohn's Disease? -- There is now evidence of a genetic link as Crohn's frequently shows up in a family group. In addition, there is evidence.

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Causes of Diarrhea -- There are many causes of diarrhea. Fortunately, in most instances, this change in bowel habits is short lived and clears up on its own.

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Diverticulosis -- Diverticulosis means that there are pockets or projections extending out from the colon. These occur very gradually over a long period of time.

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What Causes Hemorrhoids? -- A common cause of hemorrhoids is simply the standing position, in which all the blood above the rectum exerts pressure.

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Medically, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is known by a variety of other terms: spastic colon, spastic colitis, mucous colitis and nervous or functional bowel.

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An ostomy is an artificial opening on the abdominal wall through which waste material passes out of the body from the bowel or urinary tract.A colostomy indicates that the opening is from the colon

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Polyps are growths that form on the inside lining of the colon. They are usually shaped like mushrooms or dome-like buttons, and vary in size from a tiny pea.

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Causes -- The cause of ulcerative colitis is unknown. Some experts believe there may be a defect in the immune system in which the body's antibodies actually injure the colon.

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Rectal bleeding is a sign that something is wrong. It is usually something minor that can be easily diagnosed, but not always. It is, therefore, important that the specific.

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The appendix is a fingerlike pouch attached to the large intestine and located in the lower right area of the abdomen. Scientists are not sure what the appendix .

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